Falsification and Fabrication of Data
Fabrication refers to the invention, recording, or reporting of false data. Falsification refers to the alteration of research materials, equipment, protocols, data, or results. Both are serious forms of misconduct because they result in a scientific record that does not accurately reflect observed truth.
Piracy and Plagiarism
Piracy is defined as the appropriation of ideas, data, or methods from others without adequate permission or acknowledgment. Again, deceit plays a central role in this form of misconduct. The intent is the untruthful portrayal of the ideas or methods as one's own.
Plagiarism is a form of piracy that involves the use of text or other items (figures, images, tables) without permission or acknowledgment of the source of these materials. Plagiarism generally involves the use of materials from others, but can apply to researchers duplicating their own previous reports without acknowledging that they are doing so (sometimes called self-plagiarism or duplicate publication).
SLAS recognizes that not all inaccurate reports of data are the result of misconduct. SLAS agrees with the Wellcome Trust, Britain's largest biomedical charity, which has specifically stated that research misconduct does not include honest error or honest differences in the design, execution, interpretation, or judgment in evaluating research methods or results. Poor-quality research is not misconduct unless the investigators used poor-quality methods with the intention to deceive or without regard to the harm that might befall subjects.
Conflict of Interest
SLAS follows the Conflict of Interest Guidelines established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
For more in-depth information, please refer to the Description of Research Misconduct published in the Council of Science Editor's White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journals.